It is also known as - Network Topology. Network Topology is the arrangement of a connection between nodes. In addition, these devices/nodes are connected via links such as twisted pair copper wire cable or optical fiber cable.
There are 5 types of network topology:
This type of network topology connects nodes in a linear arrangement which has a main connected at each end. Just like a bus (public transport) which sends passengers along the route from one end to another. In term of network, the information is transferred along the way from one end to another. Therefore, each nodes will get the same information. If one of the nodes fails to work, it will not affect other nodes. However, if the main is not working, the whole system will stop functioning.
The 'Star' Network Topology connects nodes to only one main. As you can see in the diagram above, the arrangement of this type of network is exactly like a star. The difference of this arrangement from the bus network topology is that the nodes are directly connected to the main. If one of the nodes malfunction, it will not affect other nodes. However, if the main malfunctions, the whole system will not run.
From the arrangement, it is obvious why it is named RING network topology. Unlike the BUS and STAR network topology which is connected with a main, this type of network topology connects the nodes with each other. Each node is connected to two other devices (from left and right). However, if one of the nodes fails to function, the whole system will not be working.